Time to rid Germany of nuclear weapons

It is time to rid Germany – and indeed the whole world – of nuclear weapons. This was the message of around 500 Christians who gathered last Saturday (7 July) at Büchel, an air base in the west of Germany where about 20 nuclear weapons are stored in readiness. Our worship began with two minutes of silence at 11.58, two minutes to midday, symbolising the current setting of the Doomsday Clock at two minutes to midnight. The Doomsday Clock represents how close atomic scientists believe the planet is to a global catastrophe such as nuclear war and has been set at two minutes to midnight since January this year.

During the worship Renke Brahms, peace secretary of the “Evangelical” (i.e. Protestant) Church in Germany, said that it was not his job as a preacher to tell the German government what to do. But it is the job of a preacher to encourage Christians, as disciples of Jesus, to follow the call to be peacemakers, to love our enemies, and to do good to those who persecute us (see Matthew 5).

Heino Falcke at Büchel

Heino Falcke, former provost of Erfurt, speaking at the ecumenical event at Büchel

One of the speakers during the afternoon was Heino Falcke, who was Provost of the Protestant church in Erfurt, a city in Thuringia, formerly part of “East Germany”, from 1973 to 1994. He mentioned the World Council of Churches’ (WCC’s) “conciliar process” for justice, peace and the integrity of creation and the role of the churches in the German Democratic Republic (GDR, known as “East Germany”) in supporting conscientious objectors to military service and young people who wanted to work for peace. What he did not mention was that he himself brought a proposal for an ecumenical council on peace to the Vancouver Assembly of the WCC in 1983. It was this that prompted the WCC to launch the “conciliar process” for justice, peace and the integrity of creation. Nor did Heino Falcke mention the important role which he himself played in the “conciliar process” in the GDR, which involved a series of ecumenical assemblies. He did, however, encourage us to join him in campaigning for an amendment to the German constitution which would make Germany a nuclear-free zone.

Towards the end of the event, Stefan Maass, peace secretary of the Protestant Church in Baden, presented a recently published scenario, “Rethinking Security: From military to civil security”. More about that below. But first a look at what has happened in the past – in the 1980s in particular – and some thoughts about our present predicament.

Back in the 1980s the Doomsday Clock stood at four minutes to midnight. It seemed likely that the arms race between NATO and the Warsaw Pact would end in a devastating nuclear war. Cruise missiles were to be sited at Greenham Common and Molesworth. Her Majesty’s Government issued a pamphlet entitled “Protect and Survive” with instructions on how to protect oneself and one’s family in the event of a nuclear attack.

But many people opposed this new acceleration in the arms race. A Women’s Peace Camp was established at Greenham Common and Christian peace activists set up a peace camp at Molesworth. CND and the Bertrand Russell Peace Foundation published a pamphlet entitled “Protest and Survive”.

At the same time nonviolent movements grew in Poland (Solidarnosc), Hungary, Czechoslovakia (Charter 77), and the GDR (civil society groups under the wing of the churches). They eventually brought about the collapse of the Soviet Empire, which was symbolised by the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989. And at much the same time treaties were signed which more or less brought a halt to the arms race.

Nonviolent movements in both East and West led not only to a pause in the arms race but also to an end to the East-West divide. I never imagined that the Berlin Wall would come down in my lifetime.

However, the world is now a more dangerous place than it was even thirty or forty years ago. Both the USA and Russia still have huge arsenals and both are ruled by unscrupulous megalomaniacs. China has built up a sizeable arsenal. France and Britain still cling on to their “force de frappe” and “nuclear deterrent”. Pakistan and India both possess enough weapons to cause unimaginable suffering. It is no secret that Israel has nuclear weapons. One wonders how long the deal with Iran will hold, now that the USA has pulled out. And relations between the USA and North Korea appear to be unpredictable and potentially volatile.

So what does the future hold? More of the same would mean growing militarisation of the EU, the USA, and a great many countries throughout the world, even though recent experience in Syria and elsewhere has shown that military responses to crises tend to make matters worse. Growing militarisation, more “failed states”, more refugees drowning in the Mediterranean, and the failure to tackle climate change resulting in more and more regions becoming uninhabitable due to flooding and droughts, etc. – all this seems fairly likely.

Indeed, it could conceivably all be much worse: all-out war between Saudi Arabia and Iran; a nuclear missile launched by accident; catastrophic climate change even during the next few decades, because of the failure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; mass starvation in sub-Saharan Africa; even greater flows of refugees, which UN agencies can no longer cope with. All this is possible.

But a positive scenario is also possible. The scenario postulated by the Protestant Church in Baden envisages Germany making a transition by 2040 from a military security policy to a civil security policy. This would come about because of the recognition that Germany’s own security depends on the security of its neighbours. It is better to help build up justice, peace, and democratic institutions in other countries rather than threaten their security or attempt to build peace by military means. Germany’s civil security policy would stand on five pillars: 1. Just foreign relations; 2. Sustainable development in the EU’s neighbourhood countries; 3. Participation in the international security architecture (EU, OSCE, NATO, UN); 4. Resilient democracy; and 5. Conversion of the federal armed forces and the armaments industry.

Are you intrigued? I hope so! Last week I completed the translation of “Rethinking Security: From military to civil security”, so it is now available in English.

The great thing about this scenario is that it presents a positive vision of how the future could be, if we choose to do all we can to make it happen. I’m reminded of the verse in the book of Deuteronomy (Deuteronomy 30:19): “I set before you life and death, blessing and a curse. Therefore choose life, that you and your children may live.”

Advertisements

Wilfried Warneck is my brother!

Early in 1990 I took over from Wilfried Warneck as executive secretary of Church and Peace, the European network of peace churches, communities and groups. For the previous 15 years Wilfried had built up what was the Historic Peace Churches Continuation Committee into a network of more than thirty peace churches, communities, and peace and service agencies such as Eirene (International Christian Service for Peace), and Quaker Peace & Service.

When I took over Wilfried’s post as executive secretary, he took on the role of chairman. This could have been a recipe for disaster. I remember that it took Wilfried several weeks to clear out of his office. But, rather than breathing down my neck, he was able to be helpful and supportive without succumbing to the temptation to engage in micromanagement.

Admittedly there were times when I felt a bit overwhelmed by all the ideas which he had, which were going to mean more work for me when I already had enough work to do. But we enjoyed a good working relationship which was characterised by mutual respect. It surely helped that we prayed and ate together in the Laurentiuskonvent on a daily basis during the working week.

Wilfried and his wife Ruth had established the Laufdorf group of the Laurentiuskonvent about ten years earlier together with Ernst von der Recke. When I arrived in Laufdorf I was keen to join in daily worship and shared meals, although it wasn’t until Wilfried and Ruth left Laufdorf three or four years later that I became a member of the group and eventually joined the Laurentiuskonvent.

Daily worship in the chapel under the roof of the communal house of the Laurentiuskonvent provided the spiritual basis for my work for Church and Peace. Wilfried (and Marie-Noëlle von der Recke) provided the theological basis. I learnt about exegesis and hermeneutics. (I still need to remind myself what the latter means, though!) Wilfried’s sermons at Church and Peace conferences and on other occasions were informative and inspiring. Translating them for the Church and Peace newsletter wasn’t always easy, because of the complex German sentence construction, but it was always rewarding. Wilfried gave me a grounding in the theological basis of the peace church message (i.e. the Gospel of nonviolence), which we, especially Quakers, neglect at our peril.

As I write (on a train to Cologne), it occurs to me that my first visit to Bonn (or perhaps it was the second) was together with Wilfried and Ruth to protest against the first Iraq war. This was before, or soon after, the reunification of Germany, so Bonn was still the capital. It may have been on that occasion that Wilfried took me to the Malteserhof in Königswinter, just across the river (Rhine) from Bonn, where there was a community of the Laurentiuskonvent during the 1960s and 70s. Wilfried and Ruth, who were both founding members of the Laurentiuskonvent, lived there until they moved to Laufdorf in 1977.

After fleeing from East Prussia towards the end of the Second World War, Wilfried passed his Abitur in 1949. He studied Protestant theology in Bethel and Heidelberg and subsequently spent three years with the Brothers of Taizé – in Taizé and in Marseille. One thing that I very much appreciated about Wilfried was his ecumenical orientation, which meant that he was welcomed and respected not only within the Protestant church in Germany, but also in Mennonite congregations, Catholic religious communities, and in radical protestant communities, such as the Basisgemeinde Wulfshagenerhütten. He even embraced an English Quaker as his successor at the helm of Church and Peace!

I had served for about three years as executive secretary of Church and Peace when Wilfried stepped down as chairman. At his last General Assembly as chairman – I forget where it was – we held a small farewell party for him. I remember making a speech in which I asked – and explored various possible answers to – the question, “Who is Wilfried Warneck?” I finally came to the conclusion: “Wilfried Warneck is my brother.”

I didn’t attempt to count, but I should think there were more than a hundred of us who gathered in Wethen in north Hesse for Wilfried’s funeral. Besides all the members and friends of the Laurentiuskonvent in Wethen there was a good number of people from further afield, from Wulfshagenerhütten (near Kiel) in the north of Germany to Bammental (east of Heidelberg) in the south.

From Laufdorf there was Ernst and Marie-Noëlle von der Recke, Theodor von Verschuer, Davorka Lovrekovic, the current general secretary of Church and Peace, and, much to my delight, Ernst and Marie-Noëlle’s oldest daughter, Josepha, with her dark-haired and blue-eyed six-month-old baby, Johanna. From the Hamburg group of the Laurentiuskonvent there was Antje and Martin Heider-Rottwilm. Antje is the current chairperson of Church and Peace.

It was good to see a number of old friends from my time as executive secretary: two members of the Basisgemeinde Wulfshagenerhütten, who served at different times on the administrative committee; and several Mennonites, including Wolfgang Krauß, who was secretary of the German Mennonite Peace Committee, and Brigitte Albrecht, who served for a while as a volunteer in the Church and Peace office during Wilfried’s tenure.

Then there was Ulrich Frey, who was executive secretary of Aktionsgemeinschaft Dienst für den Frieden (AGDF, Action Committee Service for Peace), another of the organisations which Wilfried founded, along with Weltfriedensdienst, Eirene, the Laurentiuskonvent, and Oekumenischer Dienst/Schalomdiakonat – now “gewaltfrei handeln” (“acting without violence”).

Wilfried was a practical visionary. He not only had a vision of what a new organisation could do. He was able to win support for his vision and turn it into reality. This was all in the days of communication by post and telephone – no e-mail, no mobile phones, no Skype… Wilfried worked long hours by all accounts and was often away travelling, sometimes together with his wife, Ruth.

After the funeral, tea and cake were provided by the Laurentiuskonvent and the Oekumenische Gemeinschaft (Ecumenical Community) in Wethen. Quite a number of us took a turn to speak about Wilfried. Ruth reminded us that he was human. I remembered the observation that I made about twenty years ago: Wilfried Warneck is my brother.

Peace

“I told (the Commonwealth Commissioners) I lived

in the virtue of that life and power that took away the occasion of all wars.”

George Fox

 

Peace is about people living in right relationship with each other and with the planet. Peace is about justice and wellbeing for everyone. No individual can live in peace, unless the whole community is at peace.

“Shalom”, the Hebrew word for peace in the Bible, encompasses the wellbeing of the whole community. Shalom is characterised by just and peaceful relationships.

“Pax”, peace imposed by force, is not peace at all. It may be better than open warfare, but it serves to perpetuate systems of injustice.

During the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire Jesus challenged unjust laws which allowed a soldier to compel a peasant to carry his pack, a landowner to take the cloak of someone who was unable to pay a debt, or the master of a house to humiliate a servant by hitting him across the face with the back of his hand. Walter Wink has described how Jesus advocated imaginative forms of nonviolent action as a way of overcoming the violence of unjust laws and customs: carrying a soldier’s pack beyond the one-mile limit, giving the landowner one’s shirt as well as one’s cloak, turning the other cheek to the master of the house.

Jesus wasn’t advocating meek submission. He was encouraging poor folk to harness the power of active nonviolence, to stand up for themselves whilst at the same time demonstrating goodwill towards their oppressors. He told his followers: “Love your enemies. Do good to those who persecute you and spitefully use you.”

Martin Arnold, a retired German protestant pastor, has coined the term Guetekraft for the power of active nonviolence, the power of goodness. In four volumes Martin explains how Guetekraft, “goodness-power”, works – even against a ruthless dictator. Martin’s books are the fruit of research into the life and works of three practitioners of nonviolence who have successfully employed Guetekraft: Hildegard Goss-Mayr, Mohandas K. Gandhi, and Bart de Ligt.

It is because Guetekraft is powerful, that we do not need to resort to armed violence, which is invariably counterproductive, as Holly Near points out in the chorus of her song, “Foolish Notion”: “Why do we kill people who are killing people to show that killing people is wrong? What a foolish notion that war is called devotion, when the greatest warriors are the ones who stand for peace.”

If we live in the virtue of that life and power that takes away the occasion of all wars, as George Fox did, we will not be persuaded to join an army, however just their cause may seem to be.

Violence cannot be overcome with violence. Violence breeds hatred and further violence.

On the other hand, peace grows from the seeds of peace. Small gestures of goodwill begin the creation of a climate of trust in which antagonists can eventually cooperate to dismantle systems of injustice. It may be a long and painful process, but it is far more likely than military action to bear the fruits of peace.

Key to the way in which Guetekraft works is the willingness to accept the costs of engaging in nonviolent action rather than do violence to one’s opponent. Peace warriors may sometimes be called upon to make the greatest sacrifice as Jesus did. Franz Jaegerstaetter, the Austrian farmer who was executed because he refused to serve in Hitler’s army, comes to my mind.

Millions of soldiers died in the First World War. What a fruitless undertaking!

When he was dying, Jesus prayed for those who tortured him. He is the Christ within us, the life and power in whom we live and move and have our being.

Jesus told his disciples: “My peace I leave you. My peace I give to you. Not as the world gives peace do I give you my peace.”

This war-torn world of ours is very much in need of peace – in Syria, in Palestine and Israel, in Ukraine, and in northern Iraq.

Britain is in need of peace too. A society in which significant numbers of people have to go to food banks to get enough to eat is not a peaceful one. And Britain’s possession of weapons of mass destruction makes the world more dangerous and less peaceful.

The world is in need of the peace that Jesus gives. We are called as individuals to be peacemakers. And we are called as communities of faith to be a force for peace in the world.

It is hardly surprising that we have got into the habit of thinking that life is a right to be defended. But we need to think of life, like peace, as a gift to be shared.

There are Quakers serving with the Ecumenical Accompaniment Programme in Palestine and Israel (EAPPI). I know of a Friend serving with the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Ukraine. And there are Quakers serving in Afghanistan and in northern Iraq.

By no means all of us are called to this kind of service. There is much that we can do to foster peaceful community relations wherever we happen to live. And we can play our part in the peace campaigning and advocacy work of our faith community. When we join together with other faith communities and harness the power of goodness, we will become a force to be reckoned with.

British Quakers gather in Bath – and some thoughts about marriage

This afternoon, Sasha – now my wife – and I travelled together with Gretchen Castle, General Secretary of the Friends World Committee for Consultation (FWCC), to Bath, in the southwest of England, to attend the Yearly Meeting Gathering of British Quakers.

The city of Bath is familiar to me from visits during my days at a nearby Quaker boarding school (Sidcot) and occasionally since then. I last visited Bath three or four years ago, accompanying service users from Evesham & Pershore Mind (a local mental health charity) on a trip to the Christmas market. I remember it being a wet day a few weeks before Christmas.

Today was relatively warm. A local bus took us past Bath Abbey, across the River Avon, with a good, but fleeting, view of Pulteney Bridge, and up a steep hill to the university. Bath is a fine city, famous for its Roman baths and Georgian terraces. But most of us will spend the entire week on the university campus, except when we go on various excursions on Wednesday.

About 2,000 Quakers have come to take part in the Yearly Meeting Gathering, which will combine the formal sessions of Britain Yearly Meeting and a whole lot of less formal events and activities. Most of us are British Friends, but there will be a significant number of overseas visitors amongst us. I have already bumped into Hadewijch Touwen, an old (i.e. long-standing) Quaker friend from the Netherlands. Sasha and I have been greeted by Kerstin and Ludger Mangels from southwest Germany. Kerstin is the editor of “Quaeker”, the monthly newsletter/journal of German-speaking Quakers. And Sasha has introduced me to the mother-in-law of a close friend of hers from Portland, Oregon.

Sasha has come here to work: to inform British Quakers about the role and work of the Quaker Council for European Affairs (QCEA), and to learn about the concerns of British Quakers. I shall do what I can to support her and Andrew Lane, the Deputy Representative of QCEA, when he comes on Wednesday and Sasha returns to Brussels. I am also here as a member of Banbury & Evesham Area Meeting, one of the constituent area meetings of Britain Yearly Meeting. I’m keen to take part in the discernment of the Yearly Meeting. And I’ve been looking forward very much to meeting up with a great many old and not-so-old friends.

It was good to find Sarah here from Evesham Local Meeting. During my seven years as warden of the meeting house in Evesham, no other member of the local meeting attended Yearly Meeting. There are other friends here from Banbury & Evesham Area Meeting. I joined Maria and her daughter, Faith, at supper time. Faith is attending Junior Yearly Meeting. I asked Maria how long she had been married: 20 years! Sasha and I have been married for three weeks.

We have bumped into a few Friends who were at our wedding in Lancaster, a few who weren’t able to come, and several who would have been invited, if we hadn’t had to draw the line somewhere. John played an invaluable role in the clearness meeting in Lancaster which paved the way for our marriage. The clearness meeting was far from being a formality. So Sasha and I are prepared for married life to be challenging at times, not just a bed of roses.

Nevertheless, our experience of the past three weeks has been very positive. Although we have been living together since the end of last year, our life together somehow has a new flavour. Our love for one another is growing.

Around the time of our wedding I was reminded from time to time of a short song which I learnt many years ago:

May the love we’re sharing spread its wings
Fly across the Earth
And bring new joy to every soul that is alive.
May the blessings of the Universe
Shine on everyone
And may we all see the Light within, within, within.

 

Snow brings Ramallah to a standstill

View from the kitchen door of the Annex of the Friends Meeting House

View from the kitchen door of the Annex of the Friends Meeting House

Tree laden with snow blocks path alongside the Annex

Tree laden with snow blocks path alongside the Annex

Snow piled up alongside the Meeting House

Snow piled up alongside the Meeting House

Ramallah Friends Meeting House

Ramallah Friends Meeting House

Flowers in the snow

Flowers in the snow

Al Manarah, usually a busy thoroughfare at the heart of Ramallah, is free of traffic

Al Manarah, usually a busy thoroughfare at the heart of Ramallah, is free of traffic

A snowman and an artificial Christmas tree herald the Christmas season

A snowman and an artificial Christmas tree herald the Christmas season

The plight of non-Jewish communities in Palestine

It’s cold here in Ramallah. It snowed last night. It was still snowing when I got up this morning. But it was wet snow. And by the time I set off to go to Jerusalem it had turned to rain.

Nevertheless, when I arrived at the bus station, there were no buses. A taxi driver offered to take me to the checkpoint at Qalandia for 50 Shekels. I knew this was extortionate, so I turned down the offer. He called me back and went down to 40 Shekels and then to 30 Shekels. I suggested 25 Shekels, but was persuaded to agree to pay 30 Shekels. I probably needn’t have paid more than 25 Shekels, but I don’t like arguing.

The checkpoint was very quiet, just a few men who were probably going to work in spite of the weather. We were soon allowed through the barrier and the security check. The soldier gave my passport a very cursory glance and waved me on. On other occasions my passport has been studied very carefully as I held it up against the glass pane separating the Israeli soldiers from those of us passing through the checkpoint.

A Palestinian who was leaving the checkpoint along with me, asked where I came from. “England”, I said. He complained that the Israelis treat him and his fellow Palestinians like animals. In fact they probably treat animals better, he said. Then, referring no doubt to the Balfour Declaration, he complained about us British giving their (the Palestinians’) land to the Israelis.

The Israeli government seems to have forgotten or, more likely, simply ignored the clause in the Balfour Declaration which states “ it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine”.

In 1948 750,000 Palestinians were driven from their homes and became refugees. In 1967 during the Six Day War many more refugees were created. And the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights were occupied by Israel.

Since then many Palestinians have lost their land where Israeli settlements, which are illegal under international law, have been built. Some of their land, especially in the Jordan Valley, is now farmed by Israeli enterprises which export most of their produce, mainly dates, to Europe. And some of their land has been designated as military zones which may be used for training.

There was some good news today, though. The Prawer Plan, which entails the removal of 30,000 to 40,000 Bedouin from 35 villages in the Negev, has been withdrawn from the Knesset, the Israeli parliament. An ostensible reason for the withdrawal is that one of the two authors of the plan told the Knesset that, contrary to what some government ministers were saying, he had not consulted the Bedouin when drawing up the plan.

The vast majority of the Bedouin have made it very clear that they do not wish to have their land taken away from them and their semi-nomadic way of life destroyed. If the Israeli government were serious about consulting the Bedouin, they would know that they want their existing villages to be provided with the same services and infrastructure that Jewish communities are provided with: water, electricity, sewerage, and schools.

The Israeli government encourages and supports the establishment and expansion of Jewish settlements in the West Bank. These settlements are effectively stealing not only Palestinian land, but also Palestinian water. The village of Auja, which I visited with Quaker Voluntary Action a few weeks ago, has suffered especially. Most of the villagers used to work on the land, but the nearby springs have dried up due to Israeli extraction of the water. So the villagers are now unemployed or have to find work in the Israeli plantations where water is plentiful. The “miracle” of making the desert bloom is performed using stolen water.

Benjamin Netanyahu is apparently insisting that Israeli soldiers be stationed in the Jordan Valley for ten years, if a two-state solution is implemented. I wonder whether he would agree to Palestinian soldiers being stationed in the Negev to protect the Bedouin? I guess not, because he wants any Palestinian state to be demilitarised (apart from the stationing of Israeli troops).

I’m all for states being demilitarised. Israel could begin the process by dismantling and disposing of its nuclear weapons.

Settlers and refugees

The milk that I buy in the small supermarket round the corner turns out to be a “Product of Palestine”, as I had hoped. It comes from the Al-Jebrini Dairy Co. of Hebron. So I guess they must have dairy cattle down in the south of the West Bank. I’ll look out for them when I go to Hebron on Saturday.

One of the “attractions” for anyone who wants to see the occupation of the Palestinian territories at first hand is the “settler tour”, which takes place in Hebron each Saturday during the Jewish Sabbath or “Shabbat”. I have yet to witness this ritual, but I’m told that both Israeli soldiers and Jewish settlers take part in it.

The venue is the Palestinian market in the centre of Hebron. The soldiers enter first, around 3 p.m., making way for the settlers, who then wreak havoc by turning over the market stalls, scattering produce everywhere. They cause considerable damage, but I don’t suppose anyone compensates the stall holders.

I’m keen to see as much as I can, whilst I’m here in Palestine/Israel, and to talk to lots of different people. Yesterday I went to meet with two women, both of them mothers, in an Israeli West Bank settlement not far from Jerusalem. This morning I visited a small refugee camp just south of Ramallah.

These are two different worlds. But both of them are inhabited by mothers, fathers, sons, daughters, brothers and sisters. And, so far as I could gather, most people in both the settlement and the refugee camp just want their children and grandchildren to be able to live in peace.

Both the women in the settlement made it clear to me that, if it would bring about peace, they would be prepared to move out of the settlement and find somewhere to live with their families within the 1967 borders of Israel, in spite of having made the settlement their home around 20 years ago.

The three of us agreed that it would need a miracle for the Israeli government and the Palestinian Authority to agree to a two-state solution to the conflict. Both mothers would accept a one-state solution, so long as the state were Jewish.

I tried to ascertain what it is that would make a state Jewish. High standards of education, health care and social welfare provision were clearly important to both women. But all that could be equally well provided in an Arab state, in my opinion. A Jewish state would be democratic with every citizen having the right to vote. In my opinion, an Arab state could be equally democratic. (I accept, though, that in practice Arab states tend not to be democratic according to our Western understanding of democracy.)

What it seemed to boil down to in the end is this: A Jewish state would have the (military) means with which to defend itself and Jews would be in control of defence and security.

It seems that the average Jewish Israeli citizen wants to be sure that the Israel Defence Forces can keep any enemies at bay and that Israel’s borders can be made secure against the infiltration of terrorists.

One of my favourite songs is a Taizé chant: “Nie par puissance, nie par force, mais par l’esprit du Seigneur.” (Not by power, nor by might, but by the spirit of the Lord.) I’m afraid I can’t quote chapter and verse. But many of the Old Testament prophets said much the same thing: Don’t put your faith in horses and chariots. Put your faith in the Lord your God.

Peace and security cannot be assured by force of arms. Peace will reign when we put our faith in the God of love, who leads us to do justice.

Peace will not be possible in Israel/Palestine until the refugees who were driven out of their villages in 1948 and 1967 are compensated in some way, so that they can escape the overcrowding and poverty of the refugee camps. There is no realistic prospect of them returning to the villages that they came from. Many of these villages have been destroyed. But their “right of return” needs to be recognised and they need to be compensated for the failure to fulfil that right.